Schola Hungarica Post-Tridentine Gregorian Chant in Hungary

BMCCD193 2012

In the mid-sixteenth century came a turning point in the situation of Gregorian chant in Europe, and thus in Hungary too. Although the Synod of Trent dealt hardly at all with music, it established uniform liturgical texts for the whole continent.


Schola Hungarica

conducted by
Judit Fehér (1, 3, 4, 6, 8-10, 12-14, 16-18, 21-32, 25-27, 29-31, 33, 35, 37) and
László Dobszay (2, 4, 7, 11, 15, 19, 20, 24, 28, 32, 34, 36, 38)

About the album

Recorded by Péter Erdélyi at Franciscan Church Of Sümeg, June, 2008 – Special thanks to the Franciscan Community of Sümeg
Recording producer: András Wilheim
Mixed, edited and mastered by Péter Erdélyi at Artfield Studio, Piliscsaba

Cover Art-Smart by GABMER / Bachman

Produced by László Gőz
Label manager: Tamás Bognár

Supported by The National Cultural Fund of Hungary


Komlós József Jr. - Alföldi Régió Magazin (hu)

3500 HUF 11 EUR

Post-Tridentine Gregorian Chant in Hungary

Dominica II in Adventu | Second Sunday in Advent

01 I. Introitus 2:47
02 II. Kyrie 1:15
03 III. Alleluia 1:13
04 IV. Cancio 1:22
05 V. Sanctus, Agnus 2:45
06 VI. Communio 0:48
07 VII. Cancio 2:31

Nativitas Domini, missa in aurora | Christmas, Mass at Dawn

08 I. Introitus 2:46
09 II. Alleluia 1:22
10 III. Communio 0:44
11 IV. Cancio 1:13

Epiphania | Epiphany

12 I. Introitus 1:58
13 II. Alleluia 1:44
14 III. Communio 0:41
15 IV. Cancio 0:43

Dominica III post Pascha | Third Sunday after Easter

16 I. Introitus 2:24
17 II. Alleluia 1:14
18 III. Communio 0:51
19 IV. Cancio 2:07
20 V. Cancio 0:53

Dominica V post Pascha | Fifth Sunday after Easter

21 I. Introitus 2:56
22 II. Alleluia 1:07
23 III. Communio 1:20
24 IV. Cancio 1:48

Dominica XVIII post Pentecosten | Eighteenth Sunday after Pentecost

25 I. Introitus 2:40
26 II. Alleluia 1:10
27 III. Communio 0:37
28 IV. Cancio 1:24

Dominica XXII post Pentecosten | Twenty-second Sunday after Pentecost

29 I. Introitus 2:07
30 II. Alleluia 1:22
31 III. Communio 0:30
32 IV. Cancio 1:23

In festo Sancti Pauli Eremitae | For the Feast of Saint Paul the Hermit

33 I. Introitus 2:01
34 II. Kyrie, Gloria 4:35
35 III. Alleluia 2:21
36 IV. Sanctus, Agnus 3:34
37 V. Communio 0:47
38 VI. Cancio 2:00
Total time 65:03

Post-Tridentine Gregorian chant in Hungary

In the mid-sixteenth century came a turning point in the situation of Gregorian chant in Europe, and thus in Hungary too.

Although the Synod of Trent dealt hardly at all with music, it established uniform liturgical texts for the whole continent. These dated back to an old tradition, and were not obligatory for churches which already had their own equally ancient traditions, yet they were adopted sooner or later practically everywhere, and both in liturgy and in music, local traditions were abandoned.

However, since the synod did not prescribe the music, in the seventeenth century a wide variety of attempts were made to alter the old melodies so they would fit the Tridentine texts, and also the tastes of the time. As this disc demonstrates, such experiments were made in Hungary too.

But continuation of the tradition was problematic not just because of the Synod of Trent. After the middle of the sixteenth century the attention of church musicians turned to polyphony, and where there were not enough good singers, they made do with newly fashioned popular hymns. Although Gregorian chant continued to be regarded as an integral part of the liturgy, in most places it was considered sufficient to pray it, or a few movements were sung to a simplified melody. If this was the case in the West, how much more understandably in the Hungarian church, which had been almost eradicated during the Turkish occupation.

However, in around 1600 Pauline monks in Hungary conducted an interesting experiment. This order was founded in Hungary at the end of the thirteenth century, and for a long time clung to the (central Hungarian) Esztergom liturgical and musical customs as a sign of the order’s own identity. When after 1600 they moved to the new Roman (Tridentine) liturgy, they wanted to preserve at least the musical aspect of the order’s character, and so they reapplied the Roman chant texts to their own melodies from the Hungarian tradition, simplifying them a little where they saw fit. Compared to the old Gregorian chant this was a barbarian act, but this repertoire is a part of our music history, and if we listen to it as an expression of late Renaissance or early classical music, then undeniably, melodious and at times heart-rending chants were created in this manner.

This dual, historical and aesthetic curiosity explains why it is worth presenting at least a small selection of this repertoire on a CD. Our source was an anthem book of the Paulines in Sátoraljaújhely written in 1623 containing chants for the mass. It provides three movements for each feast: the introit, which begins the mass, the alleluia, and the communion chant. The two outer movements show less change compared to the Middle Ages, because even their texts mostly match those of the earlier tradition. The genuinely characteristic forms are to be found in the alleluias: these are usually new compositions based on old models, yet in the place of the old Gregorian ornamentations there are shorter aria-like melodic passages.

The appendix to the Pauline gradual also contains ordinaries for the mass. In the first and the last cycle here (which contains the chants for the feast of Saint Paul the Hermit, the patron saint of the order) we have recorded some of these pieces, which well demonstrate the new style.

Finally, some subsequent inscriptions can be found in the book, which contain four-part arrangements of Latin cantios (non-liturgical, Latin strophic songs). These can be supplemented with pieces from the Eperjes Gradual, dating from almost the same time (1635). Although the latter are Hungarian translations, their annotations clearly refer to the Latin original, and they are thus easy to match with Latin texts from other songbooks.

László Dobszay
Translated by Richard Robinson

Dominica II in Adventu
Second Sunday in Advent
1. Introitus
Populus Sion, ecce Dominus veniet ad salvandas gentes, et auditam faciet Dominus gloriam vocis suae in laetitiam cordis vestri. Ps. Qui regis Israel, intende, qui deducis velut ovem Joseph. Gloria Patri et Filio et Spiritui Sancto, sicut erat in principio et nunc et semper, et in saecula saeculorum, amen. Populus Sion...
People of Sion, behold the Lord will come to save the Gentiles: and the Lord will make the glory of his voice heard to the joy of your hearts. Ps. Give ear, O thou that rulest Israel: thou that leadest Joseph like a sheep. Glory to the Father, to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit, as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end, Amen. People of Sion…
2. Kyrie
Kyrie eleison... Christe eleison... Kyrie eleison.
Lord, have mercy... Christ, have mercy... Lord, have mercy.
3. Alleluia
Laetatus sum in his quae dicta sunt mihi: in domum Domini ibimus.
I was glad when they said unto me, let us go into the house of the Lord.

4. Cancio
1. In natali Domini gaudent omnes Angeli et cantant cum juibilo: Gloria uni Deo. R. Virgo Deum genuit, virgo Christum peperit virgo semper intacta. 2. Nuntiavit Angelus, gaudium pastoribus, Christi natalitia, magna cum laetitia. R.
1. At the birth of the Lord all angels rejoice and sing with joy: glory to the one God. R. The Virgin begot God, the Virgin gave birth to Christ, the Virgin ever pure. 2. The angel proclaims the good news to the shepherds, the birth of Christ, with great joy. R.
5. Sanctus, Agnus
Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth... – Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi...  
Holy, holy, holy Lord God Almighty... – Lamb of God, who taketh away the sins of the world...
6. Communio
Jerusalem surge et sta in excelso, et vide jucunditatem quae veniet tibi a Domino Deo tuo.
Arise O Jerusalem, and stand on high, and see the joy that comes to thee from thy Lord God.
7. Cancio
1. Puer natus in Bethlehem hoc in anno, unde gaudet Jerusalem. R. Hoc in anno gratulemur, genitrici collaetemur dulci jubilo, Christum Regem veneremur novo cantico. 2. Assumpsit formam hominis hoc in anno, Verbum Patris altissimi. R. Hoc in anno... 3. In hoc natali gaudio hoc in anno, benedicamus Domino. R. 4. Laudetur Sancta Trinitas, hoc in anno, Deo dicamus gratias. R.
1. At this time a child is born in Bethlehem, at whom Jerusalem rejoiced. R. At this time we rejoice, with the mother in her sweet joy, we praise Christ the King with a new song. 2. At this time he took human form, Word of the Father most high. R. At this time... 3. In this time, in Christmas joy, let us give thanks to the Lord. R. 4. Praise the Holy Trinity, at this time, thanks be to God. R.
Nativitas Domini, Missa in aurora
Christmas, Mass at Dawn
8. Introitus
Lux fulgebit hodie super nos, quia natus est nobis Dominus, et vocabitur: Admirabilis, Deus, Princpes pacis, Pater futuri saeculi, cujus regni non erit finis. Ps. Dominus regnavit, decorem indutus est, indutus est Dominus forditudinem et praecinxit se. Gloria... Sicuterat... Lux fulgebit.
Today the light shall shine on us, for the Lord is born to us: and He shall be called: Wonderful, God, Prince of peace, Father of the ages to come, Whose reign shall have no end. Ps. The Lord reigns, He is clothed in beauty, the Lord has put on strength, and has girded himself. Glory... As it was... Today the light has shone... 
9. Alleluia
Dominus regnavit, decorem induit, induit Domine fortitudinem, et praecinxit se virtute.
The Lord reigns, He is clothed in beauty, the Lord has put on strength, and has girded Himself with virtue.

10. Communio
Exsulta filia Sion, lauda filia Jerusalem, ecce Rex tuus venit, sanctus et salvator mundi.
Daughter of Sion, exult, shout aloud, daughter of Jerusalem: Your King is coming, the holy one, the saviour of the world.
11. Cancio
1. Nobis est natus hodie de pura Virgine, de pura Virgine Rex victoriae, rex victoriae. 2. Cui sol, luna et terra, omnia sidera vernant per tempora. 3. Ideo nos terrigenae laudemus hodie Regem potentiae.
1. Today of a pure Virgin is born to us the Lord of victory. 2. In whom the moon, sun, and earth and heavenly stars spring forth throughout the ages. 3. So we on earth praise the almighty Lord.
12. Introitus
Ecce advenit dominator Dominus, et regnum in manu ejus et potestas et imperium. Ps. Deus iudicium tuum Regi da, et iustitiam tuam Filio Regis. Gloria... Sicut... Ecce advenit.
Behold the Lord the Ruler is come: and the Kingdom is in His Hand, and power, and dominion. Ps. Give to the king Thy judgement, O God: and to the king’s Son Thy justice. Glory.... As it was... Behold the Lord the Ruler is come.
13. Alleluia
Vidimus stellam eius in oriente, et venimus cum muneribus adorate Dominum.
We have seen his star in the East, and are come with gifts to adore the Lord.
14. Communio
Vidimus stellam eius in oriente, et venimus cum muneribus adorare Dominum.
We have seen his star in the East, and are come with gifts to adore the Lord.

15. Cancio
Omnis mundus jocundetur nato Salvatore, casta mater quem concepit Gabrielis ore. R. Sonoris vocibus, sinceris mentibus, gaudeamus et laetemur hodie.
The whole world rejoices at the birth of the Saviour, whom the chaste mother conceived, as Gabriel foretold. R. With resounding voices and sincere hearts, let us rejoice and be glad today.
Dominica III post Pascha
Third Sunday after Easter

16. Introitus
Jubilate Deo omnis terra, alleluia, psalmum dicite nomini eius, alleluia, date gloriam laudi eius, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Dicite Deo: quam terribilia sunt opera tua, Domine, in multitudine virtutis tuae mentientur tibi omnes inimici tui. Gloria... Sicut... Jubilate...
Shout with joy to God all the earth, alleluia, sing a psalm to his name, alleluia, give glory to his praise, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Say unto God: how tremendous are thy works, O Lord, in the multitude of thy strength, thine enemies shall lie to Thee. Glory... As it was... Shout with joy...

17. Alleluia
Oportebat pati Christum et resurgere a mortuis, et ita intrare in gloriam suam.
It behoved Christ to suffer and to rise again from the dead, and so to enter into His glory.
18. Communio
Modicum et non videbitis me, alleluia, iterum modicum et videbitis me, quia vado ad Patrem, alleluia, alleluia.
A little while, and you shall not see Me, alleluia; and again a little while, and you shall see Me, because I go to the Father, alleluia, alleluia.

19. Cancio
1. Surrexit Christus hodie, alleluja, alleluja, alleluja. Humano pro solamine, alleluja, alleluja, alleluja. 2. Mortem qui passus pridie, alleluja... miserrimo pro homine. 3. In hoc paschali gaudio, all. benedicamus Domino. 4. Laudetur sancta Trinitas, all. Deo dicamus gratias.
1. Christ is risen today, alleluia, alleluia, alleluia. For the comfort of all people, alleluia, alleluia, alleluia. 2. He suffered death the day before, alleluia... he suffered for us all. 3. Rejoice in this Easter day, alleluia, Let us give thanks to God. 4. Praise to the Holy Trinity, alleluia, let us give thanks to God.

20. Cancio
Resurgente Domino jubilemus, exultemus, qui pependit in ligno, jubilemus, exultemus. 2. Si non resurrexisset, ... reus homo mansisset...
Let us rejoice and be glad in the Resurrection of our Lord, who hung on the tree, let us rejoice and be glad. 2. If He had not risen again,... we would all be lost...
Dominica V post Pascha
Fifth Sunday after Easter

21. Introitus
Vocem jucunditatis annuntiate et audiatur, alleluia, nuntiate usque ad extremum terrae liberavit Dominus populum suum, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Jubilate Deo omnis terra, psalmum dicite nomini eius, date gloriam laudi ejus. Gloria... Sicut... Vocem jucunditatis...
Declare it with the voice of joy, and make it known, alleluia: declare it even to the ends of the earth: The Lord hath delivered His people, alleluia, alleluia. Ps. Rejoice in God all the earth, sing a psalm to his name, give praise to his glory. Glory... As it was... Declare it with the voice...

22. Alleluia
Surrexit Christus et illuxit nobis, quos redemit sanguine suo.
Christ is risen, and hath shone upon us, whom He redeemed with His blood.

23. Communio
Cantate Domino, alleluia, cantate Domino et benedicite nomen ejus, bene nuntiate de die in diem salutare eeius, alleluia, alleluia.
Sing unto the Lord, alleluia: sing unto the Lord, and bless His name: show forth His salvation from day to day, alleluia, alleluia.

24. Cancio:
1. Ascendit Christus hodie, alleluja, alleluja, super caelos rex gloriae, alle-, alleluja. 2. Captivitatem captivam ad caelo duxit patriam. 3. Ergo nun cum tripudio benedicamus Domino. 4. Laudetur Sancta Trinitas, Deo dicamus gratias.
1. Christ this day ascended into heaven, alleluia, alleluia, King of Glory over the heavens, alle-, alleluia. 2. He has taken captivity captive, giving us happiness. 3. So we bless the Lord in the dance. 4. Praise the Holy Trinity, thanks be to God.

Dominica XVIII post Pentecosten
Eighteenth Sunday after Pentecost

25. Introitus
Da pacem Domine sustinentibus te, ut prophetae tui fideles inveniantur, exaudi preces servi tui et plebis tuae Israel. Ps. Laetatus sum in his quae dicta sunt mihi, in domum Domini ibimus. Gloria... Sicut... Da pacem...
Give peace, Lord to those who wait for Thee and thy prophets will proclaim Thee as Thou deservest. Hear the prayers of thy servant and of thy people Israel. Ps. I was glad when they said unto me: let us go into the house of the Lord. Glory... As it was... Give peace...

26. Alleluia
Timebunt gentes nomen tuum, Domine, et omnes reges terrae gloriam tuam
Alleluia: And the Gentiles shall fear thy name O Lord: and all the kings of the earth thy glory.

27. Communio
Tollite hostias et introite in atria eius, adorate Dominum in aula sancta eius.
Communion: Bring up sacrifices and come into his courts; adore ye the Lord in his holy court.

28. Cancio
Ave hierarchia, caelestis et pia, Dei monarchia, respice nos Dia, ut eruamur errantes in via. Maria beata, doce nos mandata novae legis grata fac servare rata, virgo nobilis et intemerata.
Hail, Queen of heaven, mother of God, look down upon us, O Lady, that we who err in our ways may be freed. Blessed Mary, sent to us, thanks to a new law, never failed to serve, noble and inviolate Virgin.
Dominica XXII post Pentecosten
Twenty-second Sunday after Pentecost

29. Introitus
Si iniquitates observaveris, Domine, Domine, quis sustinebit? Quia apud te propitiatio est, Deus Israel. Ps. De profundis clamavi ad te Domine, Domine exaudi vocem meam. Gloria... Sicut... Si iniquitates...
If Thou, Lord, shouldst mark iniquities, O Lord, who shall stand? But there is forgiveness with Thee, God of Israel. Ps. Out of the depths have I cried unto Thee O Lord, Lord hear my voice. Glory... As it was... If Thou, Lord, shouldst mark...

30. Alleluia
Qui timent Dominum speraverunt in eo, adjutor eorum et protector eorum est.
Ye that fear the Lord, trust in Him, He is their help and their shield.

31. Communio
Ego clamavi quia exaudisti me, Deus, inclina aurem tuam et exaudi verba mea.
I have cried out because Thou, O God, hast listened to me. Incline thine ear to me and heed my words.

32. Cancio
1. Spiritus Sancti gratia apostolorum pectora, replevit sua gratia, gratia, donans linguarum genera, genera, linguarum genera. 2. Misit per mundi clymata fari verbi potentia, ut praedicarent nuntium gratiae, variis linguis omni creaturae, omni creaturae.
1. The grace of the Holy Spirit filled the apostles, filled them with holy grace, giving them various languages, many various languages. 2. He sent them out into the world to proclaim the word, his divine power, to preach the gospel of grace in various tongues of all creatures.
In festo Sancti Pauli Eremitae
For the Feast of Saint Paul the Hermit

33. Introitus
Os justi meditabitur sapientiam, et lingua eius loqueture iustitiam, lex Dei eius in corde ipsius. Ps. Noli aemulari in malignantibus, neque zelaveris facientes iniquitiatem. Gloria... Sicut... Os justi...
The mouth of the just shall meditate wisdom, and his tongue shall speak judgement, the law of God is in his heart. Ps. Be not emulous of the wicked, nor envy them that work iniquity. Glory... As it was... The mouth...

34. Kyrie, Gloria
Kyrie eleison... Gloria in excelsis Deo...
Lord, have mercy... Glory to God in the highest...

35. Alleluia
O Pater pie, Paule, dux eremitarum, lux anachoritarum, exemplum sanctitatis, monstrator viae veritatis, rosa fulgens in deserto, tu nos rege gregem Christi humillimum, esto pro nobis apud Altissimum, duc nos ad conventum supernorum.
O devout Father, Paul, leader of hermits, light to monks, example of holiness, who showed the true way, the rose flowering in the desert, lead us, the humble flock of Christ, and speak for us to the Most High, lead us to the throng on high.

36. Sanctus, Agnus
Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus... Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata...
Holy, holy, holy... Lamb of God who takes away....

37. Communion
Beatus servus quem cum venerit Dominus, invenerit vigilantem, amen dico vobis, super omnia bona sua constituet eum.
Blessed is that servant, whom when his lord shall come, he shall find watching: verily I say to you, he shall place him over all his goods.

38. Cancio
1. Nitida stella, alma puella, tu es florum flos, R. Mater Pia, virgo Maria, ora pro nobis. 2. Jesu Salvator, mundi amator, tu es florum flos; R. Jesu Pie, Fili Mariae, Eja audi nos. 3. Mater benigna, honoras digna... Mater Pia... 4. Alme Rex regum, conditor rerum... Jesu Pie... 5. Caeli Regina Virgo divina... Mater Pia...
1. O shining star, graceful maiden, you are a flower stem, R. Pious Mother, Virgin Mary, pray for us. 2. Jesus, our Saviour, lover of the world, thou art a flower stem; R. Merciful Jesus, Son of Mary, hear us. 3. Kind mother, worthy of honour... Merciful Mother... 4. Mother of the King of kings, creator God... Merciful Jesus... 5. Queen of heaven, divine Virgin... Kind Mother...

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